Enzymatic and Extraenzymatic Role of Adenosine Deaminase 1 in T-Cell–Dendritic Cell Contacts and in Alterations of the Immune Function
ABSTRACT: Adenosine deaminase 1 (ADA1) is an enzyme of the purine metabolism whose congenital defect leads to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)[[AU: OK?]]. Although classically considered a cytosolic enzyme, early evidence from work in brain synaptosomes suggested that the enzyme could be an ectoenzyme. In lymphoid cells, ectoenzymatic activity of ADA1 was also found. The obvious role of this enzyme located on the cell surface of lymphocytes and monocytes was to deaminate adenosine, making it less available for uptaking and metabolism, and also for adenosine-receptor activation[[AU: OK?]]. Quite unexpectedly, ADA1 was shown to act extraenzymatically. In addition, cell surface ADA1-binding proteins have been identified. Interestingly, the interaction of ADA1 with these anchoring proteins leads to T-cell costimulation. Recent studies performed with professional antigen- presenting cells and T lymphocytes have shown that ADA1 can bridge the two cell types together by a “cross- linking” established between different anchoring molecules in each cell. Some aspects of ADA action are similar to[[AU: OK?]] growth factors. In fact, ADA1 is a member of the adenosine deaminase growth factor (ADGF) family. Some molecular mechanisms that occur in ADA-related SCID and the role ADA1 may play in acquired immunodeficiency are also reviewed here.